The game of basketball may very well be won on the offensive end of the court. After all, a team must score in order to end up victorious. However, on the flip side of the coin, the end result of a basketball game is always heavily influenced by the defensive pressure that a team is able to exert on their opponents. No matter how well drilled a team is offensively, there will be times when their shots will simply not fall, and their defense therefore becomes paramount to their continued success.
This IQ Matrix Mind Map will specifically focus on the basics of playing tough and fundamentally sound defense in a variety of game situations and scenarios.
This article post is part of a Basketball Success Series of IQ Matrix Mind Maps. Topics within this series include:
• Part 1: Basketball Shooting Skills
• Part 2: Basketball Defensive Skills
• Part 3: Basketball Dribbling Skills
• Part 4: Basketball Passing Skills
• Part 5: Basketball Offensive Skills
• Part 6: Basketball Rebounding Skills
• Part 7: Basketball Movement Tactics
• Part 8: Basketball Post Play Skills
• Part 9: Basketball Mindset
Defensive Stance Fundamentals
The 1st Branch of this IQ Matrix Mind Map breaks down the intricacies of developing a solid defensive stance that will keep you balanced and quick on the basketball court. We will discuss general guidelines of getting into an effective stance and the advantages that this will provide you with if you are able to apply these defensive fundamentals into your basketball game.
Advantages of Good Stance Positioning
A good defensive stance will provide you with stable balance and allow you to get better positioning on the basketball court. The following list introduces you to a few key advantages of utilizing a good solid stance:
A good solid stance will dramatically improve your quickness on the basketball court. When you are low and mobile your ability to move and react to circumstances and your Opponent on the basketball court is dramatically enhanced.
Allows for Faster Acceleration
During a basketball game you need to be able to accelerate quickly at a moments notice when required. In such situations speed is of primary importance. You must be able to cover as much ground as possible in the smallest amount of time. Good solid stance fundamentals will allow you to do this very effectively.
Allows for Easy Sprinting & Transition
Why is it that Sprinters sprint off the blocks in a low starting position? They do this in order to gain maximum power from their legs in quick succession. The same rules apply to basketball. When your stance is low and correctly balanced, than you will also gain maximum power from your legs and will be a defensive force to be reckoned with on the basketball court.
Guidelines for Your Feet
The following presents you with a set of defensive stance guidelines that you must apply to your legs and feet in order to gain the most out of your defensive positioning on the basketball court.
Bend Knees at 90° Angle
Your knees must be bent at a 90° degree angle in order to maximize your quickness. When defending you must be able to move freely and quickly from moment to moment. When your knees are appropriately bent it allows you to maximize this potential as you move up and down the court defending the basketball.
Stick Bum Out
By sticking your Bum out slightly provides your body with better balance and stability. Because your knees are bent on an angle, this should naturally force you Bum outwards. If it doesn’t than you will find yourself leaning your chest and head forward, which will have a tendency to throw you off balance and will take away from the speed and power you are able to generate from your legs.
Arch Head Over Knees
Arching your head over your knees provides even more stability and balance when you are standing in a defensive stance. Your head and shoulders should effectively be vertically aligned with the position of your knees whenever you are standing in a defensive stance. This will ensure good stability and maximize your power and speed of movement.
Hold Center of Gravity
Holding your Center of Gravity simply means that you must remain balanced equally on both of your feet. If for instance you are leaning forward on one foot more than on the other, than at that moment you are not holding your Center of Gravity. This will have a tendency to slow you down and throw you off balance when defending an opponent. Of course, as you move and shuffle your feet, your Center of Gravity will shift from one leg to the next for a split moment. That is understandable. However, because it occurs so quickly, your Center of Gravity actually remains stable during this movement.
Stay on Balls of Feet
This basically means not to stand “Flat Footed” within your defensive stance. The purpose of being an effective defender is to maximize your speed and power, while maintaining your balance at all times. When you move on the Balls of Your Feet – which is in essence the front part of your foot leading into your toes – than this will naturally provide you with a more fluid and flexible movement. We utilize the front part of our foot for jumping and agility. And it is therefore this part of your foot that must be taken advantage of if you seek to build a solid and quick defensive stance that can easily react and counteract your Opponent’s movement.
Feet Shoulder Width Apart
If your feet are positioned too narrow, than you will have very little stability, power or balance. Conversely, when your feet are positioned and spaced out too wide, than this will have a tendency of slowing you down and making it difficult to move on the defensive end of the floor. You must therefore find a middle ground and position your feet at about shoulder width apart in order to maximize your speed, power and balance at all times.
“Insides” of Feet Pressing Against Floor
When you are changing direction in a defensive stance it is important to get into the habit of pressing the “inside” of your outside foot against the floor in order to improve your agility, speed and turning ability.
Guidelines for Your Hands
The following presents you with a set of defensive stance guidelines that you must apply to your arms and hands in order to gain the most out of your defensive positioning on the basketball court.
Purpose of Your Lead-Hand
The purpose of your lead-hand is to discourage the pass or the crossover dribble that your opponent may try and use against you in order to get to the basket. The lead-hand is also utilized as an arm-bar that becomes a measuring stick between you and your Opponent. If during the game you find that your Opponent is backing your down, than it is important to utilize your arm-bar in order to keep them at arm’s length away. This is critical because the moment the Offensive player gets body-to-body with you (when you are not using an arm-bar), than they have an advantage and can beat you off the dribble quite easily. The arm-bar keeps them under control and at a safe distance in order to minimize their speed and ability to beat you off the dribble.
Purpose of Your Back-Hand
The primary purpose of the back-hand is to deflect or discourage Bounce or Overhead passes. However, this hand can also be utilized as a lead-hand in order to put a little more pressure on your Opponent who is dribbling the ball. If for instance you are defending an Opponent who rarely passes the ball, than you would probably want to use both of your hands as the lead-hand, in order to maximize the pressure on your Opponent’s dribbling ability.
The Dynamics of Defensive Footwork
The 2nd Branch of this IQ Matrix Mind Map delves into the fundamental dynamics of effective footwork as it relates to the defensive stance discussed in the previous branch. We will discuss the fundamentals of the swing-step, sliding, closing-out and taking charges.
The Fundamentals of Sliding
Having the ability to slide efficiently and effectively on the defensive end of the floor will enable you good quickness and power to change direction at a moments notice when reacting to your Opponent’s movement. The following presents you with several guidelines that will help you to slide your feet more effectively on the defensive end:
Push off Back Foot, Slide with Front Foot
In order to maintain maximum stability, balance and quickness while sliding, make sure to keep your shoulders vertically aligned with your feet at all times as you push off your back-foot and slide with your front-foot.
Slide Using Long Strides
In order to cover more ground as you are sliding your feet, make sure to utilize long strides. Of course at times, depending on your Opponent’s movement, it will be necessary to use short and quick strides. However, for the most part, in order to gain maximum speed, and while training, be sure to use long strides that will help you cover as much distance as possible in a few steps.
Slide by Moving Feet Close & Parallel to Ground
One mistake that many players make, which slows down their defensive movement is the habit of sliding their feet in a vertical “Arc Like” motion. In order to maximize your speed and agility, you must slide your feet in a horizontal fashion parallel and close to the floor. This will enable you to move quickly and react to your Opponent’s movement at a moments notice.
Slide Using “Waxing” Hand Motion
Your hands and arms can effectively be utilized to help speed up your feet and agility as you are sliding. It basically comes down to the rhythm and movement of your arms. Simply rotate your arms in a “Waxing” motion as you are sliding your feet. In the most basic sense, you must pretend as though you are waxing a car and sliding your feet at the same time. This will help to get your entire body into a solid pattern and rhythm that will improve your speed and efficiency on the defensive end of the court.
Keep Your Body Balanced off Both Feet
When you slide it is easy to get knocked off balance as you rotate and move from one foot to the other. However, as you know, balance is critical to your speed and agility on the defensive end of the floor. As such, be sure to stay at your Center of Gravity, keeping your feet as close and parallel to the floor as possible, while at the same time maintaining the defensive stance we discussed in the previous section. All of these guidelines will allow you to maintain maximum balance while you are sliding on the basketball court.
Don’t Cross Your Feet
While sliding, some players have a tendency to cross their feet. This is a very bad habit that can de-stabilize your body and slow you down. Your feet must not cross when you are sliding at all costs.
The Fundamentals of Closing-Out
Closing-Out is a fundamental skill of basketball that many players take for granted. It basically involves quickly stepping up to your Opponent who has just received the ball off a pass or suddenly picked up their dribble. The Closing-Out position you create here must effectively prevent your Opponent from taking a shot or driving the lane. If your “Close-Out” has prevented these two options than you have done your job effectively.
The following presents you with a number of guidelines that will help you to Close-Out your Opponent in a more effective and efficient manner:
The Purpose of Closing-Out
The primary purpose of Closing-Out is to discourage the shot and to defend effectively against penetration into the Key area.
Close Gap Between You & Opponent
As soon as your Opponent receives the ball within scoring range, you must immediately close the gap and get into denial position. Do this by quickly taking a few long strides until you are about a body length away. At this moment start rapidly shuffling or chopping your feet in order to bridge the rest of the gap so that you get to your Opponent at about arms-length away. It is important here to keep your feet fluid and moving, in order to prevent your Opponent from driving the lane to the basket.
Throw Up Lead Hand
As you are moving in to Close-Out, be sure to throw up your lead-hand (front hand, which will mirror your front foot) in order to discourage your Opponent from taking a quick shot. Therefore if your lead-foot is your right foot, than your lead-hand will also be your right hand.
Maintain Low Center of Gravity
Keeping a low Center of Gravity is important in order to maintain your power, speed and agility within your body and legs. Hence, the moment your Defender moves or reacts to your Close-Out you will be better able to move and react accordingly while maintaining a good position between them and the basket you are guarding.
The Fundamentals of Taking Charges
Knowing how to take an effective Charge in basketball is an important skill to add to your basketball repertoire, and it is a fundamental aspect of the defensive game. The following presents you with several guidelines for taking effective Charges and maximizing protection:
When taking a Charge it is important to protect yourself at all costs. Your Opponent will be barreling into you at rapid speed, which could very well lead to an impact. As such, you need to learn how to protect yourself against this impact in order to minimize and eliminate potential injuries that could occur.
In order to protect yourself accordingly, be sure to place one hand across your chest, and the other hand across your groin area. This will ensure that the most vulnerable parts of your body are protected at the moment of impact with your Opponent.
Tuck Your Chin into Your Body
In order to protect your neck area, it is a good idea to tuck your chin into your body at the moment of impact.
Square Up Your Opponent
Unless you are squared-up to your Opponent when taking the charge, than it is likely that the Umpire will call a defensive foul against you. Squaring-up means that you are aligned face-to-face and shoulder-to-shoulder with your Opponent just before the moment of impact. If your Opponent crashes into you at mid-chest level than you know that you have squared them up correctly, and you should therefore be rewarded with the offensive foul. However, make sure that at the same time your feet are solidly placed on the ground and that you do not move your shoulders at the moment of impact.
Don’t Turn Your Body or Head
Turning your body or head away from your Opponent will force your shoulders to move. Under these circumstances the Offensive player will most likely be awarded with the ball and you will be penalized with a foul.
One-on-One “In Game” Defensive Tips
The 3rd Branch of this IQ Matrix Mind Map provides you with some effective one-on-one “In Game” tips and strategies that will help you to guard your Opponent more effectively. We will specifically discuss how you must defend when your Opponent does not have the ball, when they are holding the ball, when they pick up their dribble and when they shoot.
Scenario 1: Your Opponent Has the Ball
In this scenario your Opponent has the basketball in their hands and is ready to attack you off their dribble. How are you going to defend them?
Opponent Hasn’t Dribbled
If your Opponent has just received the ball from a pass but hasn’t as yet dribbled the ball, make sure to maintain an arms-length distance away from them. This will contain them effectively, while ensure that they cannot get off a quick shot, and that they will be discouraged against trying to beat you off the dribble.
Opponent Is Dribbling
If on the other hand your Opponent has already started dribbling the ball, than you must take into account the following guidelines as a defender:
Be Aware of Opponent’s Strengths & Weaknesses
Being aware of your Opponent’s strengths and weaknesses will provide you with some key insights on how you should be guarding them. You may find it helpful to ask yourself the following set of questions:
Which is their dominant dribbling hand?
Which is their weak dribbling hand?
How must I defend my Opponent in order to force them to dribble with their weak hand?
What other weaknesses or strengths have I noticed about my Opponent?
How can I take advantage of their weaknesses when defending them?
How can I minimize the impact of their strengths when defending them?
Test Opponent’s Strengths & Weaknesses
Now that you are aware of your Opponent’s strength’s and weaknesses, the opportunity is ripe to challenge your Opponent and expose their weaknesses in order to increase your chances of getting a steal or forcing a turnover.
Dictate Direction of Opponent’s Dribble
As an effective defender, you are in full control of your Opponent’s movement of the ball. You must begin by dictating which direction you would like them to dribble the ball by overplaying them on one side or the other. Essentially, you may like to force them to their weak dribbling hand, otherwise progressively guiding them into a double-team or towards the sideline or baseline can also work very well to your advantage. If for instance you would like them to dribble with their right hand, than you would overplay them towards their left side by getting into a low and solid defensive stance that blocks off their ability to dribble to their left.
Deny Dribble Penetration towards Mid Court
An Opponent who has the ball is most effective in the Open Court where they have more room and flexibility to operate and move. For this reason you must force your Opponent towards the baseline or sideline. These two lines can be utilized as additional defenders in order to prevent your Opponent from dribbling the ball freely up the court.
Chop Your Feet Making Shoes Squeak
The process of chopping or shuffling your feet quickly will confuse your Opponent and will breed uncertainty into their offensive movement strategy. As previously discussed, chopping your feet also improves your speed and agility helping you to react quickly to an Offensive player’s foot movement and change of direction.
Focus Eyes on Opponent’s Mid Section
When defending, some players focus on the movement of the basketball. Others focus on the eyes of their Opponent, or on the foot movement of the players they are guarding. Unfortunately these areas can all be used deceptively by players in order to fool the defense. On the other hand, an Opponent’s mid-section (stomach and hips) don’t lie. Wherever the hips are facing, that is where your Opponent is likely to pass or dribble the ball. Therefore keep an eye out on your Opponent’s mid-section and react accordingly.
Exaggerate Your Hand Movements
Exaggerated hand movements can at times confuse your Opponent and force them to pick up their dribble. However, be sure that when you are utilizing this strategy that you maintain good balance and control over your hands. It is after all very easy to overdo your hand movements, to lose balance, and get schooled by your Opponent.
Fake the Steal
Reaching in for the ball quickly and then pulling your hand out again while maintaining stability can effectively knock your Opponent off balance, force them to pick up their dribble or force the turnover. This is an effective strategy to use against less confident ball-handlers.
Don’t Overplay Your Opponent
If you do not have good balance and a solid stance, than overplaying your Opponent too far to one side will work against you. Your Opponent will see an opportunity to take advantage of your overplayed position, and they will make you pay for your defensive lapse and lack of concentration.
Don’t Run Beside Your Opponent
When your Opponent is running at full speed down the court, the absolutely worst strategy you could use here is to run beside them all the way up to the basket. Many inexperienced players have a habit of running beside their Opponent while reaching in to knock the ball away. This is a very dangerous tactic which will most likely lead to a defensive foul. Instead, you must sprint ahead of your Opponent as quickly as possible and gain front position before reaching in for the ball. Also keep in mind to stay low, balanced and quick in the defensive stance we discussed above.
Don’t Give Up Easy Layup
When your Opponent is dribbling the ball, the very worst possible scenario that can eventuate is that they beat you off the dribble and finish off with an easy layup. Your primary objective as a defender is to prevent this from happening at all costs. You must therefore keep your Opponent at Arm’s length at all times and move your feet quickly to ensure that you are always standing between them and the basket.
Scenario 2: Your Opponent Picks Up Dribble
In this scenario your Opponent has the basketball in their hands after already having dribbled the ball. How are you going to defend them?
Immediately Close the Gap
The moment your Opponent picks up the dribble you must immediately close the gap between you and them on the basketball court. Go body-to-body with your Opponent, straddling their pivot foot if possible in order to knock them off balance. Do NOT give them an inch of space, and crowd them as much as possible without fouling. Your Opponent might end up becoming so frustrated with your defensive pressure that you will be able to draw an offensive foul.
Trace Movement of the Ball with Your Hands
Once you have closed the gap between you and your Opponent, begin by tracing the movement of the basketball with one of your hands. This will enable you to get your hands in front of potential passing lanes that could open up suddenly.
Block Opponent’s Line of Site
Your Opponent is in a bit of trouble at the moment. They cannot dribble, they have very little space to move, and they therefore have no option left but to pass the ball to one of their Teammates. In order to minimize this possibility, block your Opponent’s “line of sight” with your other hand making sure that you do not poke your fingers into their eyes.
Angle Your Opponent Out of Bounds
Having closed the gap to your opponent, and with your arms working overtime following the movement of the ball and blocking your Opponent’s “line of sight”, the next step involves angling your Opponent’s body to an “Out of Bounds” position. This will effectively close off the passing lanes to their Teammates.
Don’t Allow a Shot or Pass
Your end goal is to get the 5 second call, a steal or force a bad pass or turnover. Under no circumstances should you allow your Opponent to get a shot off or an easy uncontested pass once they have picked up their dribble.
Scenario 3: Your Opponent Is Shooting
In this scenario your Opponent has the basketball in their hands and is in the process of shooting the ball. How are you going to defend them?
Don’t Allow Opponent to Square-Up to Basket
Your first priority is not to give your Opponent a chance to square up to the basket. Once your Opponent is squared-up it naturally raises the effectiveness and accuracy of their shooting motion. To avoid this situation, make sure to play solid and tight defense on your Opponent at all times, maintaining a good stance, movement, balance and spacing as was discussed earlier within this article post.
Raise Your Arms
Your Opponent has decided to shoot the ball over the top of your defensive stance. In this situation, immediately stand high off the ground without jumping, and raise your arms directly into the air to make yourself as tall as possible. At the same time it is important to step into your Opponent closing the gap without fouling. You will thusly change the trajectory of your Opponent’s shot forcing them into a “loopy or lollipop” shot over the top of your hands.
Box-out Using Arms & Body
In this scenario it is too late to close the gap on your Opponent to prevent them from shooting the ball. Therefore you must now “Box-Out” in order to prevent them from getting an offensive rebound and a second look at the basket. Box-Out your Opponent by getting wide and low. Turn your back to them, get your Bum into their waist and hip area and spread your arms making yourself as wide as possible. Also make sure that your stance is solid and balanced. The wider and more solid you become, the more difficult it will be for your Opponent to get by you for an offensive rebound.
Finally, make sure that you are positioning yourself in the gap between your Opponent and the direct line towards the basket.
Use Your Arm-bar to Contain Opponent
If your Opponent shoots the ball high up on the perimeter, than it may be more effective to Box them Out using an arm-bar to the chest area. This will keep your Opponent away from charging towards the basket, while at the same time providing you with enough leverage to move in for the rebound if the ball bounces in your direction.
Once you have Boxed-Out your Opponent, be sure to charge in for the rebound with aggression and commitment.
Scenario 4: Your Opponent Does Not Have Ball
In this scenario your Opponent does not have the basketball in their hands. How are you going to defend them?
Trap & Double Team
When your direct Opponent does not have the ball it is important to keep an eye-out for potential double-team or trapping opportunities that can pop up at a moments notice. Look for these at all times to help your Teammates defend their Opponent’s more effectively.
Protect the Gaps at all Costs
Movement on the defensive end of the floor naturally causes gaps to open up that could be taken advantage of by your Opponents. Be aware of these gap formations in your defensive team positioning strategy, and fill them up with good spacing and movement as soon as you become aware of them. If you can see them, than your Opponents are probably also conscious of these gaps.
Play the Split-line Protecting Basket & Key Area
Playing the Split-line involves the process of shifting your team defensive formation to the strong side of the key area where the ball is currently located. Hence, no player would be located on the left side of the court if the ball was being played on the right side. A diagram would probably best explain this technique. If in doubt, please ask your Coach for further explanation.
Talk on Defense
When your direct Opponent does not have the ball, it is important to talk on the defensive end to alert your Teammates who have their back to the basket what is going on behind them. Also talk when setting traps, helping out your Teammates defensively, and when your Opponent’s are cutting through the Key area.
Switch on Screens
When playing man-to-man it is useful at times to switch the Opponent you are guarding when a screen has been set. This will enable you to quickly position yourself accordingly and stay between your Opponent and the basket at all times. The mechanics of screening are discussed in another article post.
Knowing how to play effective and solid defense is a fundamental aspect of the game of basketball. However, there is a lot more to playing effective defense than simply trying to prevent your opponent from scoring a basket. The balance between defense and offense is very much like a game of chess that requires concentration, strategic thinking and skill. If you take time to master this process and develop the fundamental practices of solid footwork, stance and movement, than you will be well on your way towards becoming the “Go To” defensive stopper on your team.
I hope you enjoyed this post. If you have any further queries or questions, or would like to share your experiences about this topic, than please do so in the comments section below.
Gain More Knowledge…
Here are a number of highly recommended free articles and online resources that will further help expand your understanding about this topic:
- The Coach’s Clipboard
- Basketball Playbook
- Coach Like a Pro
- Degerstrom Basketball Drills
- Basketball Life Tips
- Better Basketball DVDs @ Better Basketball.com
- Building a Man-to-Man Defense (The Art & Science of Coaching Series) by Bob Huggins
- The Basketball Defense Guide (Nitty-Gritty Basketball Series) by Sidney Goldstein
- Defense Wins! A New Winning Approach to Team Man-to-Man Basketball by Bill Haubrich
- 101 Defensive Basketball Drills by George M. Karl, Terry Stotts & Price Johnson
- Changing Defense by the Numbers: Winning Basketball with High Tech Defense by Willie Dorsey
- Basketball Defense: Lessons from the Legends by Jerry Krause & Ralph L. Pim
- Basketball Skills & Drills by Jerry Krause, Don Meyer & Jerry Meyer
- Basketball Fun & Games: 50 Skill-Building Activities for Children by Kevin Prusak
- Coaching Basketball Technical and Tactical Skills by Kathy McGee & American Sport Education Program
- Basketball Skill Progressions by Jerry Krause, Curtis Jazn & James H. Conn
- Basketball Skills: How to Play Like a Pro by Tom Robinson